The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the endogenous gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently demonstrated in the context of different inflammatory diseases. In particular, H2S is able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by lymphocytes and innate immunity cells. Considering these biological effects of H2S, a potential role in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), can be postulated. However, despite the growing interest in H2S, more evidence is needed to understand the pathophysiology and the potential of H2S as a therapeutic agent. This is an overview on H2S biological effects, on its role in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, on H2S releasing drugs, and on systems of tissue repair and regeneration that are currently under investigation for potential therapeutic applications in arthritic diseases.
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